Ethereum 2.0 (Serenity): A Revolutionary Leap Towards Scalability and Sustainability
Ethereum 2.0, colloquially known as Serenity, stands at the forefront of anticipation within the cryptocurrency realm. As a pivotal update to the main Ethereum network, the crypto community eagerly awaits the transformative impact it promises. With numerous blockchain projects flourishing on the Ethereum platform, Ethereum 2.0 aims to rectify existing challenges, including scalability issues, slow transaction speeds, and relatively high fees. In this blog post, we delve deeper into the features, implementations, and potential implications of Ethereum 2.0, exploring the innovative solutions it introduces. This includes advancements in blockchain protocol development services, marking a significant step towards a more efficient and scalable Ethereum ecosystem.
Addressing Scalability Woes
The current Ethereum blockchain processes a modest 15 transactions per second (tps), a figure that falls short of the demands of a rapidly expanding ecosystem. Ethereum 2.0 proposes Optimistic Rollup, a technological solution designed to scale smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps) to handle an impressive 100-2000 tps. This approach implemented post-upgrade, leverages the Optimistic Virtual Machine (OVM) to enable complete smart contracts on layer two, significantly reducing transaction fees. Bonded aggregators play a crucial role, bundling user-submitted transactions into roll-up blocks on the sidechain.
Transitioning from Proof-of-Work to Proof-of-Stake
One of the monumental shifts in Ethereum 2.0 is the move from the energy-intensive Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to the more sustainable Proof-of-Stake (PoS) algorithm. Unlike PoW, which relies on miners and their computing power, PoS eliminates the need for miners. Validators, users who maintain a minimum of 32 ETH in their wallets, will confirm transactions, fostering decentralization. This shift not only addresses scalability concerns but also contributes to the long-term sustainability of the Ethereum network.
Sharding Technology Unveiled
Ethereum 2.0 introduces Sharding as a fundamental solution to the problem of scalability. Currently operating as a common database, the blockchain will undergo a transformation post-update, dividing into autonomous, interacting blocks called shards. Each shard will process its transactions and smart contracts, offering a more efficient approach. Sharding enables each network node to process specific parts of a block, enhancing transaction verification speed and overall performance.
Ethereum 2.0 Implementation Phases
The transition to Ethereum 2.0 unfolds in four carefully planned phases, each serving a specific purpose:
Phase 0 – Beacon Chain
Launched in the summer of 2020, this phase focuses solely on testing the Proof-of-Stake system. It involves checking various aspects such as managing sets, stakes fund management, random number generation for block producer selection, participant voting for the block, and rewards and fines for staking.
Phase 1 – Shards
The introduction of a network comprising 64 shards, operating in an experimental phase. While Phase 0 tests the Proof-of-Stake system without economic activity, Phase 1 explores the underlying Sharding model. During this stage, 65 mini-blockchains work in parallel – the Beacon chain from Phase 0 and 64 new shards, establishing two-way communication between the Beacon chain and the other shards.
Phase 2 – eWASM
This stage adds features like account balances, smart contract execution, and the integration of Ethereum Flavored WebAssembly (eWASM). It represents an upgrade of the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) based on WebAssembly, facilitating faster code execution and an improved development environment. Developers gain the ability to write smart contracts in C, C++, Rust, and Go, providing access to advanced tools.
Phase 3 – Continued Improvement
Smart contracts become operational, and economic activity commences. Shards will no longer serve as source data stores but will act as virtual machines and smart contracts for the Ethereum 1.0 network. Technologies such as Cross-shard transactions, Lightweight clients, Super-square charting, and Closer ties are set to be implemented during this phase.
The One-Way Bridge and Proof-of-Stake System
With the launch of Ethereum 2.0, two networks will operate in parallel. The new ETH2 serves as a reward for validating transactions on the Beacon Chain and can be purchased by any ETH1. While users can convert ETH1 to ETH2, there is no provision for reverse conversion. In its early stages, ETH 2.0 might not have a market price or support from crypto exchanges, primarily serving the purpose of staking.
To transfer ETH1 to ETH2, a deposit agreement on Ethereum 1.0 is utilized. This smart contract essentially destroys ETH1 coins, rendering them irretrievable. However, theoretical possibilities exist for restoration through a hard fork in Ethereum 1.0. Coins transferred to ETH2 automatically join the Proof-of-Stake validator pool.
Proof-of-Stake System Mechanics
In the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) concept, the weight of the vote and the size of the reward for validators depend on the number of coins in the stack. The validator has to have a minimum of 32 ETH. If more than 32 ETH are sent to the contract, the user receives no reward, and activation for staking is hindered if less than 32 ETH is sent. Transferring ETH to Ethereum 2.0 occurs in batches of 32 coins, with each batch constituting a separate part of passive income.
Emission and Staking Rewards
During the transitional period where both Ethereum systems operate simultaneously, miners and stakers require incentives to support the network. Consequently, the inflation rate in Ethereum experiences a temporary increase until both systems merge. The emission level of ETH2 depends on the number of tokens involved in the staking process. Validators, responsible for verifying transactions in the new Ethereum network, receive passive income rewards. While the annual reward for staking currently remains unknown, the project roadmap suggests it will vary between 1.81% and 18.1%. Staking profitability is contingent on the number of validators, with early-stage validators expected to garner the greatest profits.
The impending shift to the PoS algorithm and the introduction of Sharding position Ethereum as a more scalable and sustainable platform. Amidst a plethora of projects relying on the Ethereum blockchain, Ethereum 2.0 emerges as the panacea for scalability challenges. Beyond competing with other cryptocurrencies, Ethereum 2.0 aims to rival decentralized finance (DeFi) products. The anticipated benefits, including enhanced platform development, network throughput, transaction speed, and reduced fees, position Ethereum to retain its status as the go-to platform for innovative blockchain start-ups.
As Ethereum braces for an upgrade, it not only seeks to outperform its cryptocurrency counterparts like EOS and TRON but also anticipates a significant impact on the mining industry. Ethereum, currently the favored coin for home mining, is expected to undergo a seismic shift, compelling many miners to reconsider their position in the market. In conclusion, Ethereum 2.0 marks a milestone in the evolution of Blockchain Protocols technology, promising a future where scalability and sustainability coalesce to redefine the landscape of decentralized systems.